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Using Python to Meet the Requirement of the A Level Specifications - an interactive Jupyter Notebook

There are some areas of the specifications though that take some thought to cover using Python without resorting to other languages, but there are no show stoppers and few difficult areas. The Markdown below is a poor rendition of both the interactive Notebook and the non-interactive PDF attached. To use the Jupyter Notebook, see .

Glen Thomas

Created by Glen Thomas
last edited Apr 08 2019 by Glen Thomas

Using Python to Meet the Requirement of the A Level Specifications

Python is a great learning language that is very popular with programmers in a wide range of industries, from web development to engineering and science to application development. It is suitable for rapid prototyping and the basics are easy to learn, with no boilerplate and clean syntax, while being powerful enough for enterprise and academic use.

There are some areas of the specifications though that take some thought to cover without resorting to other languages, but there are no show stoppers and few difficult areas.

Technical topics

  1. arrays
  2. switch/case statements
  3. databases
  4. records (structs)
  5. functional programming

1. Arrays

The Array module

The base install of Python includes C-type arrays, initiated with a declaration and sporting static typing. Python arrays are suitable for OCR, but are not necessary for AQA, which only requires the arry-type item addressing, so lists are fine.

import array



from array import array

array1 = array('l')
array2 = array('u', 'hello \u2641')
array3 = array('l', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5])

for x in array3:
    print(x, end=", ")

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

Being Python, arrays are not immutable, and many of the standard list methods apply:

array4 = array('d', [1.0, 2.0, 3.14])
print("slicing: array4[2]:", array4[2])
array('d', [1.0, 2.0, 3.14, 2.75])
slicing: array4[2]: 3.14

Python Lists

Native Python lists are usable for most array work, and all of it for AQA which really expects lists to be used.

myList = list(range(6))
print("myList =         ", myList)

print("myList[2]:       ", myList[2])
print("myList[1:2]:     ", myList[1:2])

print("Reversed:        ", myList)

nestedList = [[1,2,3]] * 3
print("Nested list:     ", nestedList)
print("nestedList[1][2]:", nestedList[1][2])

myList =          [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
myList[2]:        2
myList[1:2]:      [1]
Reversed:         [5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
Nested list:      [[1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3]]
nestedList[1][2]: 3

2. Switch/Case


switch entry:
    case “a”:
        print(“You selected A”)
    case “b”:
        print(“You selected B”)
    case “c”:
        print(“You selected C”)
    case “d”:
        print(“You selected D”)
        print(“Unrecognised selection”)

Switch/case structures are not provided with a specific syntax in Python, but equivalent function can be achieved with if/elif/else

if / elif / else

entry = "c"

if entry == "a":
    print("You selected A")
elif entry == "b":
    print("You selected B")
elif entry == "c":
    print("You selected C")
elif entry == "d":
    print("You selected D")
    print("Unrecognised selection")

You selected C


Dictionaries work well if a value or function is returned:

entry = "c"

case = {
    'a': "You selected A",
    'b': "You selected B",
    'c': "You selected C",
    'd': "You selected D",
if entry in case:
    print("Unrecognised selection")

You selected C

For more advanced students, lambdas allow function calls from within a compact structure:

entry = "c"

case = (lambda x:
            print("You selected A") if x=='a' else
            print("You selected B") if x=='b' else
            print("You selected C") if x=='c' else
            print("You selected D") if x=='d' else
            print("Unrecognised selection") #default return

You selected C


There are lots of options for accessing databases with Python, but SQLite3 is installed as a base package by default.

This code below will link to a database file in memory. Naming as a file instead of referencing ‘:memory:’ will create a database file instead of one in-memory. (eg. ‘testDatabase.db’)

import sqlite3

dbase = sqlite3.connect(':memory:')   

# Create a cursor object for interaction
cursor = dbase.cursor()
    CREATE TABLE users(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, name TEXT, email TEXT unique, password TEXT)


Record Data Structures

AQA has in its A Level specification: “Use records (or equivalent)”, while OCR has the phrase “Arrays, records, lists, tuples.”

Records should have named fields which may be of different types, and ought to be immutable to enable safe passing around in a program. In many programming cases plain tuples may be a suitable alternative even without the named-fields property, using implicit tuple unpacking.


catRecord1 = ('Snuffles', 'Tabby', 3, 4.2)
catRecord2 = ('Schneider', 'Black', 4, 3.6)

records = [catRecord1, catRecord2]

for cat in records:
    name, breed, age, weight = cat
    print(f"{name} is a {breed} cat and is {age} years old, weighing {weight} kilos.")

print('Text representation:', cat)

Snuffles is a Tabby cat and is 3 years old, weighing 4.2 kilos.
Schneider is a Black cat and is 4 years old, weighing 3.6 kilos.

Text representation: ('Schneider', 'Black', 4, 3.6)

Named Tuples

More useable as traditional records are named tuples, from the collections module.

from collections import namedtuple

Cat = namedtuple('Cat', 'name breed age weight')

catRecord1 = Cat('Snuffles', 'Tabby', 3, 4.2)                    # Use positional arguments ...
catRecord2 = Cat(name='Irene', age=4, weight=2, breed='Persian') # or named fields

records = [catRecord1, catRecord2]

name, breed, age, weight = records[0]         # tuple unpacking again
print(f"{name} is a {breed} cat and is {age} years old, weighing {weight} kilos.")

name =                       # ... or use attribute names
print(f'Cat2\'s name is {name}.')              
print("Text represention:", catRecord1)

Snuffles is a Tabby cat and is 3 years old, weighing 4.2 kilos.
Cat2's name is Irene.

Text represention: Cat(name='Snuffles', breed='Tabby', age=3, weight=4.2)

Functional Programming

Haskell is a great language for demonstrating the functional programming paradigm, and Python does not have all the same structures, so we should use Haskell for this element of the specificatoin. But you can show some Haskell code re-written in Python to show it in a more familiar context.

Functions as first class objects

numbers = (1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12)
print('The numbers are', *numbers)

choice = input('Menu \n 1: minimum \n 2: maximum \nChoice:')

def func(choice):
    if choice == 1: return min
    else: return max              # returns a function. Note: no '()'
function = func(choice)
print('The result is', function(numbers))

The numbers are 1 3 5 6 7 12
 1: minimum 
 2: maximum 
The result is 12

High order functions

AQA require knowledge of map, filter and reduce or fold.


For example, add 5 to each element of a list with a loop, and with map:

itemList = [1 ,2, 3, 4, 5]
result = []

for item in itemList:
    result.append(item + 5)


[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

def func(x): return x + 5

list(map(func, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))

[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

Anonymous lambda functions can be used in place of the function, like the Haskell function:

map (+5) [1 ,2, 3, 4, 5]

‘map’ returns an interator, so Python needs the ‘list’ function if you want it as a list. Alternatively, use a list comprehension.

list(map(lambda x : x + 5, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))

[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

[x + 5 for x in [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]    # list comprehension

[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]


Filters out values using a conditional expression, like the Haskell expression:

filter (>3) [1..5]

def test(x): return x > 3

list(filter(test, range(6)))

[4, 5]

list(filter(lambda x : x > 3, range(6)))

[4, 5]

[x for x in [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] if x > 3]

[4, 5]


reduce is included in the functools module, and operates as the Haskell foldl:

foldl (*) 1 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

from functools import reduce

def func(x, y): return x * y

reduce(func, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 1)


reduce(lambda x, y : x * y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 1)

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